Well I don't live up there so I can't attest to the laws of NYS. However I can say that every state has a website these days. I would do a search for NYS governors office, or state department, or something to that effect. There you will probably have to rummage through lots of links but somewhere in there you should be able to find information on laws pertaining to everything you listed.
Another option would be to go to your local police precinct and ask them. Sometimes police departments have pamphlets on such things or even offer training classes themselves.
As for you formal training question that is a state by state issue. In Alabama for instance you sign a piece of paper, they do a background check, and poof you have a concealed carry permit. However is some states, Texas for example, you have to complete 8-10 hours of instruction that includes target practice with a live weapon as well as instruction on SD protocol. Whatever the case with NYS it is probably safe to assume that there are third party classes that cover any and all topics you could desire. Do a search for weapons and SD training classes in your area and I am sure you will have no problem finding some. Just check and make sure that the class offers what you want and try to see what the reputation of the facility is. Good luck.