The Moors occupied southern Spain "temporarily," from about 700 through 1492.
It was a "Golden Age" for art, the written word, medicine, mathematics, and philosophy. Different societies and religions coëxisted peacefully, and mixed comfortably everywhere in southern Spain.
It all came to an abrupt end when Ferdinand and Isabella united the societies of northern Spain under the banner of Catholicism, and chased the Moors (and almost everybody else) out. That was immediately followed by the Spanish Inquisition, with well-known, unpleasant results, and the end of the arts, written words, medicine, mathematics, and philosophy for about 500 years.
the detail in the stone work is amazing. i cannot even fathom the amount of time and patience that would have taken.